Post-translational modifications to histone proteins regulate the packaging of genomic DNA into chromatin, gene activity and other functions of the genome. They are understood to play key roles in embryonic development and disease pathogenesis. Recent advances in technology have made it possible to analyze chromatin structure genome-wide in mammalian cells. Global patterns of histone modifications can be observed using a technique called ChIP-on-chip, which combines the specificity of chromatin immunoprecipitation with the unbiased, high-throughput capabilities of microarrays. The resulting maps provide insight into the functions of, and relationships between, different modifications. Here, we provide validated ChIP-on-chip methods for analyzing histone modification patterns at genome-scale in mammalian cells.